What is flipping?
‘Flipped learning’ or ‘the flipped classroom’ are recent buzz words/phrases in education. Flipping is an approach that comes in two parts:
- the ‘transmission’ or ‘delivery’ part of teaching (in Higher Education this is usually a lecture) is replaced by a way of delivering the same or similar to students at home, often by means of video recording of a traditional lecture. This is intended to prepare students for the second part of the flip.
- a face-to-face (f2f) session during which students are expected to actively engage with the subject matter, with their peers and with the lecturer.
‘The consensus is that dynamic, interactive learning in which students are presented with opportunities to solve problems is more effective than students functioning as receivers of didactic transmission. Interacting might be with the ‘lecturer’ or between peers.’… (Dr. Simon Lancaster, 2013)
What’s wrong with the traditional lecture, you might ask? Stereotypically, students are passive ‘receivers of didactic transmission’ in a traditional lecture and they only actively engage with the subject matter during self-study. Moreover, there may be little interaction with the lecturer and between peers. The potential problems here are well known. Passive students tend to drift off in lectures, are unable to follow the points being made or can’t keep up with the pace of the ‘delivery’ as they juggle between taking notes and actively listening. The experience can be discouraging for many students and may result in poor attendance, high drop out and high failure rates.
Of course, many (most?) lectures are not like this. In many lectures students are encouraged to ask and respond to questions and to participate and engage in various ways beyond just listening and taking notes. Even where this is the case, it is often the same small subset of students who ask and answer the questions posed and participate beyond being physically present. For many students the traditional lecture is still a largely passive experience.
‘Flipping’ aims to use the valuable face-to-face time in the timetable for activities such as problem solving, simulations, discussion, debate and analysis of case studies.
In the traditional model (again, stereotypically) students spend self-study periods working alone in the library or at home. They use notes and handouts from the lecture plus text books and journals, and work to complete the assignments they have been given. They do this without the benefit of a subject expert (a lecturer) or their peers to provide support and guidance. The flipped approach uses these quiet self-study periods for the ‘didactic transmission’ of information – often by means of a recorded lecture or presentation. The question that arises here is why students would be any more likely to engage with and learn from a recorded lecture viewed than from a live lecture delivered face-to-face. Further posts on this blog will aim to address this question.
Image credit: flickr photo by ugod http://flickr.com/photos/ugod/4563706716 shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license